Significant accounting policies

Basis of consolidation

Subsidiaries

Subsidiaries are entities controlled by the Group, as defined in IAS 27 – Consolidated and Separate Financial Statements. Control exists when the Group has the power, directly or indirectly, to govern the financial and operating policies of an entity so as to obtain benefits from its activities. Subsidiaries are consolidated from the date that control commences until the date that control ceases. Equity attributable to non-controlling interests and non-controlling interests in the profit/(loss) of consolidated subsidiaries are presented separately from the interests of the owners of the parent in the Consolidated statement of financial position and Income statement respectively. Losses applicable to non-controlling interests that exceed the minority’s interests in the subsidiary’s equity are allocated against the non-controlling interests.

Changes in the Group's ownership interests in subsidiaries that do not result in the loss of control are accounted for as equity transactions. The carrying amounts of the Equity attributable to owners of the parent and Non-controlling interests are adjusted to reflect the changes in their relative interests in the subsidiaries. Any difference between the book value of the non-controlling interests and the fair value of the consideration paid or received is recognized directly in the Equity attributable to the owners of the parent.

If the Group loses control of a subsidiary, a gain or loss is recognized in the Income statement and is calculated as the difference between (i) the aggregate of the fair value of the consideration received and the fair value of any retained interest and (ii) the carrying amount of the assets (including goodwill) and liabilities of the subsidiary and any non-controlling interests. Any profits or losses recognized in Other comprehensive income/(losses) in respect of the measurement of the assets of the subsidiary are reclassified to the Income statement when the Group loses control of the subsidiary if, in accordance with relevant IFRS, these gains and losses would be reclassified to the Income statement on the disposal of the related assets or liabilities.

The fair value of any investment retained in the former subsidiary at the date when control is lost shall be regarded as the fair value on initial recognition of a financial assets in accordance with IAS 39 – Financial instruments: recognition and measurement or, when appropriate, the cost on initial recognition of an investment in an associate or jointly controlled entity.

Jointly controlled entities

Jointly controlled entities are enterprises in which the Group has contractually agreed to share control or for which a contractual arrangement exists whereby two or more parties undertake an economic activity that is subject to joint control. Investments in jointly controlled entities are accounted for using the equity method from the date that joint control commences until the date that joint control ceases.

Associates

Associates are entities over which the Group has significant influence, as defined in IAS 28 – Investments in Associates, but not control or joint control over the financial and operating policies. Investments in associates are accounted for using the equity method from the date that significant influence commences until the date it ceases.  When the Group’s share of losses of an associate, if any, exceeds the carrying amount of the associate in the Group’s balance sheet, the carrying amount is reduced to nil and recognition of further losses is discontinued except to the extent that the Group has incurred legal or constructive obligations or made payments on behalf of the associates.

Investments in other companies

Investments in other companies that are available-for-sale financial assets are measured at fair value, when this can be reliably determined. Gains or losses arising from changes in fair value are recognized in Other comprehensive income/(losses) until the assets are sold or are impaired; at that time, the cumulative Other comprehensive income/(losses) are recognized in the Income statement. Investments in other companies for which fair value is not available are stated at cost less any impairment losses.

Dividends received are included in Other income/(expenses) from investments.

Transactions eliminated in consolidation

All significant intragroup balances and transactions and any unrealized gains and losses arising from intragroup transactions are eliminated in preparing the Consolidated financial statements. Unrealized gains and losses arising from transactions with associates and jointly controlled entities are eliminated to the extent of the Group’s interest in those entities.

Foreign currency transactions

The functional currency of the Group’s entities is the currency of their primary economic environment. In individual companies, transactions in foreign currencies are recorded at the exchange rate prevailing at the date of the transaction. Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies at the balance sheet date are translated at the exchange rate prevailing at that date. Exchange differences arising on the settlement of monetary items or on reporting monetary items at rates different from those at which they were initially recorded during the period or in previous financial statements, are recognized in the Income statement.

Consolidation of foreign entities

All assets and liabilities of foreign consolidated companies with a functional currency other than the Euro are translated using the exchange rates in effect at the balance sheet date. Income and expenses are translated into Euro at the average exchange rate for the period. Translation differences resulting from the application of this method are classified as Equity until the disposal of the investment. Average exchange rates for the period are used to translate the cash flows of foreign subsidiaries in preparing the Consolidated statement of cash flows.

The goodwill, assets acquired and liabilities assumed arising from the acquisition of entities with a functional currency other than the Euro are recognized in the functional currency and translated at the exchange rate at the acquisition date. These balances are translated at subsequent balance sheet dates at relevant exchange rate.

The principal exchange rates used to translate into Euros the financial statements prepared in currencies other than the Euro were as follows:

 Average 2013At 31 December 2013Average 2012At 31 December 2012
U.S. Dollar 1.328 1.379 1.285 1.319
Brazilian Real 2.867 3.258 2.508 2.704
Chinese Renminbi 8.164 8.349 8.106 8.221
Serbian Dinar 113.096 114.642 113.120 113.718
Polish Zloty 4.197 4.154 4.185 4.074
Argentine Peso 7.263 8.988 5.836 6.478
Pound Sterling 0.849 0.834 0.811 0.816
Swiss Franc 1.231 1.228 1.205 1.207

Business Combinations

Business combinations are accounted for by applying the acquisition method of accounting, in accordance with IFRS 3 – Business combinations. When a business combination is achieved in stages, the Group's previously held equity interest in the acquiree is remeasured at its acquisition-date fair value and any resulting gain or loss is recognized in Income statements under Gains/(losses) on the disposal of investments. Changes in the equity interest in the acquiree that have been recognized in Other comprehensive income/(losses) in prior reporting periods are reclassified to Income statement as if the interest had been disposed.

Intangible assets

Goodwill

Goodwill arising from business combinations is initially measured at cost as established on the acquisition date. Goodwill is not amortized, but is tested for impairment annually or more frequently if events or changes in circumstances indicate that it might be impaired. After initial recognition, goodwill is measured at cost less any accumulated impairment losses.

On the loss of control of a previously acquired entity, any outstanding goodwill balance is included in the determination of the gain or loss on disposal.

Development costs

Development costs for vehicle project production and related components, engines and production systems are recognized as an asset if and only if both of the following conditions under IAS 38 – Intangible assets are met: that development costs can be measured reliably and that the technical feasibility of the product, volumes and pricing support the view that the development expenditure will generate future economic benefits. Capitalized development costs include all direct and indirect costs that may be directly attributed to the development process.

Capitalized development costs are amortized on a a straight-line basis from the start of production over the expected life cycle of the models (generally 5-6 years) or powertrains developed (generally 10-12 years).

All other development costs are expensed as incurred.

Intangible assets with indefinite useful lives

Intangible assets with indefinite useful lives consist principally of brands which have no legal, contractual, competitive, economic, or other factors that limit their useful lives. Intangible assets with indefinite useful lives are not amortized, but are tested for impairment annually or more frequently whenever there is an indication that the asset may be impaired, by comparing the carrying amount with the recoverable amount.

Property, plant and equipment

Cost

Property, plant and equipment are initially recognized at cost which comprises the purchase price, any costs directly attributable to bringing the assets to the location and condition necessary for it to be capable of operating in the manner intended by management and any initial estimate of the costs of dismantling and removing the item and restoring the site on which it is located. The self-constructed assets are initially recognized at production cost. Subsequent expenditures and the cost of replacing parts of an asset are capitalized only if they increase the future economic benefits embodied in that asset. All other expenditures are expensed as incurred. When such replacement costs are capitalized, the carrying amount of the parts that are replaced is recognized in the Income statement.

Assets held under finance leases, which provide the Group with substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership, are recognized as assets of the Group at their fair value or, if lower, at the present value of the minimum lease payments. The corresponding liability to the lessor is included in the financial statements as a Debt. The assets are depreciated by the method and at the rates indicated below depending on the nature of the leased assets.

Leases under which the lessor retains substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of the leased assets are classified as operating leases. Operating lease expenditures are expensed on a straight-line basis over the lease terms.

Depreciation

Depreciation is calculated on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of the assets as follows:

in %Depreciation rates
Buildings 3% - 8%
Plant, machinery and equipment 3% - 33%
Other assets 5% - 33%

Land is not depreciated.

Impairment of assets

The Group assesses at the end of each reporting period whether there is any indication that its Intangible assets (including development costs) and its Property, plant and equipment may be impaired. Goodwill and Intangible assets with indefinite useful lives are tested for impairment annually or more frequently, if there is an indication that an asset may be impaired.

If indications of impairment are present, the carrying amount of the asset is reduced to its recoverable amount that is the higher of fair value less costs to sell and its value in use. Where it is not possible to estimate the recoverable amount of an individual asset, the Group estimates the recoverable amount of the cash-generating unit to which the asset belongs. In assessing the value in use of an asset, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset. An impairment loss is recognized if the recoverable amount is lower than the carrying amount. Impairment of Property plant and equipment and Intangible assets arising from transactions that are only incidentally related to the ordinary activities of the Group and that are not expected to occur frequently, are recognized under Other unusual expenses.

Where an impairment loss for assets other than Goodwill, subsequently no longer exists or has decreased, the carrying amount of the asset or cash-generating unit is increased to the revised estimate of its recoverable amount, but not in excess of the carrying amount that would have been recorded had no impairment loss been recognized. The reversal of an impairment loss is recognized in the Income statement immediately.

Financial instruments

Presentation

Financial instruments held by the Group are presented in the financial statements as described in the following paragraphs.

Investments and other non-current financial assets comprise investments in unconsolidated companies and other non-current financial assets (held-to-maturity securities, non-current loans and receivables and other non-current available-for-sale financial assets).

Current financial assets, as defined in IAS 39, include Trade receivables, Receivables from financing activities, Current Investments, Current securities and Other current financial assets (which include derivative financial instruments stated at fair value), as well as Cash and cash equivalents. In particular, Cash and cash equivalents include cash at banks, units in liquidity funds and other money market securities that are readily convertible into cash and are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value. Current securities include short-term or marketable securities which represent temporary investments of available funds and do not satisfy the requirements for being classified as cash equivalents; Current securities include both available-for-sale and held-for-trading securities.

Financial liabilities refer to Debt, which includes Asset-backed financing, and Other financial liabilities (which include derivative financial instruments stated at fair value), Trade payables and Other payables.

Measurement

Investments in unconsolidated companies are accounted for as described in the previous paragraph – Investments in other companies.

Non-current financial assets other than Investments, as well as current financial assets and financial liabilities, are accounted for in accordance with IAS 39 – Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement.

Current financial assets and held-to-maturity securities are recognized on the basis of the settlement date and, on initial recognition, are measured at acquisition cost, including transaction costs. Subsequent to initial recognition, available-for-sale and held-for-trading financial assets are measured at fair value. When market prices are not directly available, the fair value of available-for-sale financial assets is measured using appropriate valuation techniques (e.g. discounted cash flow analysis based on market information available at the balance sheet date).

Gains and losses on available-for-sale financial assets are recognized in Other comprehensive income/(losses) until the financial asset is disposed of or is impaired; when the asset is disposed of, the cumulative gains or losses, including those previously recognized in Other comprehensive income/(losses), are reclassified to the Income statement for the period, within Financial income and expenses; when the asset is impaired, accumulated losses are recognized in the Income statement. Gains and losses arising from changes in the fair value of held-for-trading financial instruments are included in the Income statement for the period.

Loans and receivables which are not held by the Group for trading (loans and receivables originating in the course of business), held-to-maturity securities and equity investments whose fair value cannot be determined reliably, are measured, to the extent that they have a fixed term, at amortized cost, using the effective interest method. When the financial assets do not have a fixed term, they are measured at acquisition cost. Receivables with maturities of over one year which bear no interest or an interest rate significantly lower than market rates are discounted using market rates. Assessments are made regularly as to whether there is any objective evidence that a financial asset or group of assets may be impaired. If any such evidence exists, an impairment loss is included in the Income statement for the period.

Except for derivative instruments, financial liabilities are measured at amortized cost using the effective interest method.

Financial assets and liabilities hedged against changes in fair value (fair value hedge) are measured in accordance with hedge accounting principles: gains and losses arising from remeasurement at fair value, due to changes in the respective hedged risk, are recognized in the Income statement and are offset by the effective portion of the loss or gain arising from remeasurement at fair value of the hedging instrument.

Derivative financial instruments

Derivative financial instruments are used for hedging purposes, in order to reduce currency, interest rate and market price risks (primarily concerning commodities and securities). In accordance with IAS 39, derivative financial instruments qualify for hedge accounting only when at the inception of the hedge there is formal designation and documentation of the hedging relationship, the hedge is expected to be highly effective, its effectiveness can be reliably measured and it is highly effective throughout the financial reporting periods for which it is designated.

All derivative financial instruments are measured at fair value.

When derivative financial instruments qualify for hedge accounting, the following accounting treatments apply:

  • Fair value hedges – Where a derivative financial instrument is designated as a hedge of the exposure to changes in fair value of a recognized asset or liability that is attributable to a particular risk and could affect the Income statement, the gain or loss from remeasuring the hedging instrument at fair value is recognized in the Income statement. The gain or loss on the hedged item attributable to the hedged risk adjusts the carrying amount of the hedged item and is recognized in the Income statement.
  • Cash flow hedges – Where a derivative financial instrument is designated as a hedge of the exposure to variability in future cash flows of a recognized asset or liability or a highly probable forecasted transaction and could affect the Income statement, the effective portion of any gain or loss on the derivative financial instrument is recognized directly in Other comprehensive income/(losses). The cumulative gain or loss is reclassified from Other comprehensive income/(losses) to the Income statement at the same time as the economic effect arising from the hedged item affects income. The gain or loss associated with a hedge or part of a hedge that has become ineffective is recognized in the Income statement immediately. When a hedging instrument or hedge relationship is terminated but the hedged transaction is still expected to occur, the cumulative gain or loss realized to the point of termination remains in Other comprehensive income/(losses) and is recognized in the Income statement at the same time as the underlying transaction occurs. If the hedged transaction is no longer probable, the cumulative unrealized gain or loss held in Other comprehensive income/(losses) is recognized in the Income statement immediately.
  • Hedges of a net investment – If a derivative financial instrument is designated as a hedging instrument for a net investment in a foreign operation, the effective portion of the gain or loss on the derivative financial instrument is recognized in Other comprehensive income/(losses). The cumulative gain or loss is reclassified from Other comprehensive income/(losses) to Income statement on the disposal of the foreign operation.

For further information on the effects arising on Income statement on derivative financial instruments refers to Note 20.

If hedge accounting cannot be applied, the gains or losses from the fair value measurement of derivative financial instruments are recognized immediately in the Income statement.

Transfers of financial assets

The Group derecognizes financial assets when, and only when, the contractual rights to the cash flows arising from the asset are no longer held or if it transfers the financial asset. In case of a transfer of financial asset:

  • if the Group transfers substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of the financial asset, it derecognizes the financial asset and recognizes separately as assets or liabilities any rights and obligations created or retained in the transfer;
  • if the Group retains substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of the financial asset, it continues to recognize the financial asset;
  • if the Group neither transfers nor retains substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of the financial asset, it determines whether it has retained control of the financial asset. In this case:
    • if it has not maintained control, it derecognizes the financial asset and recognizes separately as assets and liabilities any rights and obligations created or retained in the transfer;
    • if it has retained control, it continues to recognize the financial asset to the extent of its continuing involvement in the financial asset.

On derecognition of financial assets, the difference between the carrying amount of the asset and the consideration received or receivable for the transfer of the asset is recognized in the Income statement.

Inventories

Inventories of raw materials, semi-finished products and finished goods are stated at the lower of cost and net realizable value, cost being determined on a first in-first-out (FIFO) basis. The measurement of Inventories includes the direct costs of materials, labor and indirect costs (variable and fixed). Provision is made for obsolete and slow-moving raw materials, finished goods, spare parts and other supplies based on their expected future use and realizable value. Net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business less the estimated costs of completion and the estimated costs for sale and distribution.

The measurement of production systems construction contracts is based on the stage of completion determined as the proportion of cost incurred to the balance sheet date over the estimated total contract cost. These items are presented net of progress billings received from customers. Any losses on such contracts are fully recorded in the Income statement when they become known.

Employee benefits

Defined contribution plans

Costs arising from defined contribution plans are recognized as an expense as incurred.

Defined benefit plans

The Group net obligations are determined separately for each plan by estimating the present value of future benefits that employees have earned in the current and prior periods, and deducting the fair value of any plan assets. The present value of the defined benefit obligation is measured using actuarial techniques and actuarial assumptions that are unbiased and mutually compatible and attributes benefits to periods in which the obligation to provide post-employment benefits arise by using the Projected Unit Credit Method. Plan assets are recognized and measured at fair value.

When the net obligation is a potential asset, the recognized amount is limited to the present value of any economic benefits available in the form of future refunds or reductions in future contributions to the plan (asset ceiling).

The components of the defined benefit cost are recognized as follows:

  • the service costs are recognized in Income statement by function and presented in the respective line items (Cost of sales, Selling general and administrative costs, Research and development costs, etc.);
  • the net interests on the defined benefit liability or asset are recognized in the Income statement as Financial income (expenses), and is determined by multiplying the net liability/(asset) by the discount rate used to discount obligations taking into account the effect of contributions and benefit payments made during the year;
  • the remeasurement components of the net obligations, which comprise actuarial gains and losses, the return on plan assets (excluding interest income recognized in the Income statement) and any change in the effect of the asset ceiling are recognized immediately in Other comprehensive income/(losses). These remeasurement components are not reclassified in Income statement in a subsequent period.

Past service costs arising from plan amendments and curtailments are recognized immediately in the Income statement within Other unusual income and expenses. Gains and losses on the settlement of a plan are recognized in the Income statement within Other unusual income and expenses when the settlement occurs.

Other long term employee benefits

The Group obligations represent the present value of future benefits that employees have earned in return for their service during the current and prior periods. Remeasurement components on other long term employee benefits are recognized in the Income statements in the period in which they arise.

Termination benefits

Termination benefits are expensed at the earlier of when the Group can no longer withdraw the offer of those benefits and when the Group recognizes costs for a restructuring.

Provisions

Provisions are recognized when the Group has a present obligation, legal or constructive, as a result of a past event, it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation and a reliable estimate of the amount of the obligation can be made.

Changes in estimates of provisions are reflected in the Income statement in the period in which the change occurs.

Revenue recognition

Revenue for sale of vehicles and service parts is recognized if it is probable that the economic benefits associated with a transaction will flow to the Group and the revenue can be reliably measured. Revenue is recognized when the risks and rewards of ownership are transferred to the customer, the sales price is agreed or determinable and collectability is reasonably assured; for vehicles this corresponds generally to the date when the vehicles are made available to dealers, or when the vehicle is released to the carrier responsible for transporting vehicles to dealers.

Revenues are recognized net of discounts, including but not limited to, sales incentives and customer bonus.

The estimated costs of sales incentive programs incudes incentive offered to dealers and retail customers as well as any granting of retail financing at significant discount to market interest rates. These costs are recognized at the time of the sale of the vehicle.

New vehicle sales with a buy-back commitment, or through Guaranteed Depreciation Program (“GDP”), under which the Group guarantees the residual value or otherwise assumes responsibility for the minimum resale value of the vehicle, are not recognized at the time of delivery but are accounted for similar to an operating lease and rental income is recognized over the contractual term of the lease on a straight-line basis. At the end of the lease term, the Group recognizes revenue for the portion of the vehicle sales price which had not been previously recognized as rental income and recognizes, in Cost of sales, the remainder of the cost of the vehicle.

Revenues from services and from construction contracts are recognized when they are rendered by reference to the stage of completion.

Revenues also include lease rentals recognized over the contractual term of the lease on a straight-line basis and interest income from financial services companies.

Cost of sales

Cost of sales comprises expenses incurred in the manufacturing and distribution of vehicles and parts, mainly the cost of materials and components. The remaining costs principally include labor costs, consisting of direct and indirect wages, as well as depreciation, amortization and transportation costs. Cost of sales also includes warranty and product-related costs, estimated at the time of sale to dealer networks or to the end customer.

Expenses which are directly attributable to the financial services companies, including the interest expenses related to their financing as a whole and provisions for risks and write-downs of assets, are reported in Cost of sales.

Government grants

Government grants are recognized in the financial statements when there is reasonable assurance that the company concerned will comply with the conditions for receiving such grants and that the grants themselves will be received. Government grants are recognized as income over the periods necessary to match them with the related costs which they are intended to offset.

The benefit of a government loan at a below-market rate of interest is treated for accounting purposes as a government grant. The benefit of the below-market rate of interest is measured as the difference between the initial carrying amount of the loan (fair value plus transaction costs) and the proceeds received, and is accounted for in accordance with the policies used for the recognition of government grants.

Taxes

Income taxes include all taxes based upon the taxable profits of the Group. Current and deferred taxes are recognized as income or expense and included in the Income statement for the period, except tax arising from (i) a transaction or event which is recognized, in the same or a different period, either in Other comprehensive income/(losses) or directly in Equity, (ii) a business combination.

Deferred taxes are accounted for under the full liability method. They are recognized for all temporary differences between the tax base of assets or liabilities and their carrying amounts in the Consolidated financial statements, except for deferred tax liabilities arising from the initial recognition of goodwill or the initial recognition of an asset or liability in a transaction which is not a business combination and at the time of the transaction, affects neither accounting profit nor taxable profit. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured at the substantively enacted tax rates in the respective jurisdictions in which the Group operates that are expected to apply to the period when the asset is realized or liability is settled.

The Group recognizes deferred tax liabilities associated with the existence of a subsidiary’s undistributed profits, except when it is able to control the timing of the reversal of the temporary difference; and it is probable that this temporary difference will not reverse in the foreseeable future. The Group recognizes deferred tax assets associated with the deductible temporary differences on investments in subsidiaries only to the extent that it is probable that the temporary differences will reverse in the foreseeable future and taxable profit will be available against which the temporary difference can be utilized.

Deferred tax assets relating to the carry-forward of unused tax losses and tax credits, as well as those arising from deductible temporary differences, are recognized to the extent that it is probable that future profits will be available against which they can be utilized. The Group reassesses unrecognized deferred tax assets at the end of each year and recognizes a previously unrecognized deferred tax asset to the extent that it has become probable that future taxable profit will allow the deferred tax asset to be recovered.

Current income taxes and deferred taxes are offset when they relate to the same taxation authority and there is a legally enforceable right of offset.

Other taxes not based on income, such as property taxes and capital taxes, are included in Other income/(expenses).