14. Other intangible assets

Changes in the gross carrying amount of Other intangible assets were as follows: 

(€ million)At 31 December 2012AdditionsDivestituresChanges in the scope of consolidationTranslation differences and other changesAt 31 December 2013
Development costs externally acquired 5,227 1,562 (5) 198 (123) 6,859
Development costs internally generated 4,637 480 (304) - (159) 4,654
Total Development costs 9,864 2,042 (309) 198 (282) 11,513
             
Patents, concessions and licenses externally acquired 2,100 224 (19) 1 (21) 2,285
Other intangible assets externally acquired 625 64 (2) 21 (99) 609
Gross carrying amount 12,589 2,330 (330) 220 (402) 14,407

(€ million)At 31 December 2011AdditionsDivestituresChanges in the scope of consolidationTranslation differences and other changesAt 31 December 2012
Development costs externally acquired 3,841 1,547 (4) - (157) 5,227
Development costs internally generated 4,116 591 (51) - (19) 4,637
Total Development costs 7,957 2,138 (55) - (176) 9,864
             
Patents, concessions and licenses externally acquired 1,982 175 (35) - (22) 2,100
Other intangible assets externally acquired 606 72 (27) - (26) 625
Gross carrying amount 10,545 2,385 (117) - (224) 12,589

Changes in accumulated amortization and impairment losses were as follow:

(€ million)

At 31 December 2011

AmortizationImpairment lossesDisinvestitures

Changes in the scope of consolidation

Translation differences and other changes

At 31 December 2012

Development costs externally acquired 2,436 479 120 (1) 142 (11) 3,165
Development costs internally generated 2,516 408 130 (286) - (90) 2,678
Total Development costs 4,952 887 250 (287) 142 (101) 5,843
               
Patents, concessions and licenses externally acquired 875 213 - (18) - 16 1,086
Other intangible assets externally acquired 425 46 - (1) 11 (73) 408
Gross carrying amount 6,252 1,146 250 (306) 153 (158) 7,337

(€ million)

At 31 December 2011AmortizationImpairment losses

Divesti-

tures

Changes in the scope of consolidationTranslation differences and other changesAt 31 December 2012
Development costs externally acquired 2,280 234 19 - - (97) 2,436
Development costs internally generated 2,157 387 38 (45) - (21) 2,516
Total Development costs 4,437 621 57 (45) - (118) 4,952
               
Patents, concessions and licenses externally acquired 705 208 - (34) - (4) 875
Other intangible assets externally acquired 416 52 1 (26) - (18) 425
Accumulated amortization and impairment 5,558 881 58 (105) - (140) 6,252

Changes in the net carrying amount of Other intangible assets were as follows:

(€ million)

At 31 December 2012

Additions

Amortization

Impairment losses

Divestitures

Change in the scope of consolidation

Translation
diff. and other changes

At 31 December
2013

Development costs externally acquired 2,791 1,562 (479) (120) (4) 56 (112) 3,694
Development costs internally generated 2,121 480 (408) (130) (18) - (69) 1,976
Total Development costs 4,912 2,042 (887) (250) (22) 56 (181) 5,670
                 
Patents, concessions and licenses externally acquired 1,225 224 (213) - (1) 1 (37) 1,199
Other intangible assets externally acquired 200 64
(46)
- (1) 10 (26) 201
Net carrying amount 6,337 2,330 (1,146) (250) (24) 67 (244) 7,070

(€ million)

At 31 December 2011

Additions

Amortization

Impairment losses

Divestitures

Change in the scope of consolidation

Translation diff. and other changes

At 31 December

2012

Development costs externally acquired 1,561 1,547 (234) (19) (4) - (60) 2,791
Development costs internally generated 1,959 591 (387) (38) (6) - 2 2,121
Total Development costs 3,520 2,138 (621) (57) (10) - (58) 4,912
                 
Patents, concessions and licenses externally acquired 1,277 175 (208) - (1) - (18) 1,225
Other intangible assets externally acquired 190 72 (52) (1) (1) - (8) 200
Net carrying amount 4,987 2,385 (881) (58) (12) - (84) 6,337

Additions of €2,330 million in 2013 (€2,385 million in 2012) include development costs of €2,042 million (€2,138 million in 2012), consisting primarily of material costs and personnel related expenses relating to engineering, design and development focused on content enhancement of existing vehicles, new models and powertrain programs in NAFTA and EMEA region.

In 2013, to reflect the new product strategy the Group wrote-down certain Development costs by €250 million (€57 million in 2012). This amount mainly includes €151 million for the EMEA region, €32 million for the LATAM region and €65 million for Maserati in connection with development costs on new Alfa Romeo, Fiat and Maserati products, which have now been switched to new platforms considered technologically more appropriate. These write-downs of Development costs have been recognized as Other unusual expenses for €226 million. In 2012, the write-down was recognized within Trading profit/(loss), as this was not related to strategic factors.

Changes in the scope of consolidation amounted to €67 million mainly includes the effects of the consolidation of the VM Motori group, as discussed in the section Scope of consolidation.

Foreign exchange losses of €242 million in 2013 principally reflect the changes in the US Dollar and Brazilian Real against the Euro. Foreign exchange losses of €87 million in 2012 principally reflected the devaluation of the US Dollar and Brazilian Real against the Euro, partially offset by the appreciation of the Polish Zloty against the Euro.