15. Property, plant and equipment

Changes in the gross carrying amount of Property, plant and equipment were as follows:

(€ million)

At 31 December 2012

AdditionsDivestituresDepreciationChange in the scope of consolidationTranslation differences Other changesAt 31 December 2013
Land 716 4 (5) - 3 (55) 216 879
                 
Owned industrial buildings 6,397 510 (29) - 19 (282) 254 6,869
Industrial buildings leased under finance leases 19 - - - - - 71 90
Total Industrial buildings 6,416 510 (29) - 19 (282) 325 6,959
                 
Owned plant, machinery and equipment 34,078 2,470 (847) - 213 (1,338) 2,357 36,933
Plant, machinery and equipment leased under finance leases 382 54 (4) - 27 1 15 475
Total Plant, machinery and equipment 34,460 2,524 (851) - 240 (1,337) 2,372 37,408
                 
Other tangible assets 1,908 137 (51) - 5 (93) 123 2,029
                 
Advances and tangible assets in progress 3,273 1,935 (4) (2) 4 (177) (2,752) 2,277
Gross carrying amount 46,773 5,110 (940) (2) 271 (1,944) 284 49,552

(€ million)

At 31  December 2011

AdditionsDivestituresDepreciationChange in the scope of consolidationTranslation differences Other changesAt 31 December 2012
Land 726 4 (7) - - (8) 1 716
                 
Owned industrial buildings 5,938 170 (33) - 2 (70) 390 6,397
Industrial buildings leased under finance leases 57 - - - - - (38) 19
Total Industrial buildings 5,995 170 (33) - 2 (70) 352 6,416
                 
Owned plant, machinery and equipment 31,674 1,244 (822) - (12) (404) 2,398 34,078
Plant, machinery and equipment leased under finance leases 359 29 (3) - (6) 3 - 382
Total Plant, machinery and equipment 32,033 1,273 (825) - (18) (401) 2,398 34,460
                 
Other tangible assets 1,940 118 (75) - 2 (20) (57) 1,908
                 
Advances and tangible assets in progress 2,679 3,584 (9) - - (104) (2,877) 3,273
Gross carrying amount 43,373 5,149 (949) - (14) (603) (183) 46,773

Changes in accumulated depreciation and impairment losses were as follows:

(€ million)

At 31 December 2012DepreciationImpairment lossesDivestituresChange in the scope of consolidationTranslation differencesOther changesAt 31 December 2013
Land 7 - - - - - - 7
                 
Owned industrial buildings 2,228 257 - (14) 2 (82) (38) 2,353
Industrial buildings leased under finance leases 5 1 - - - - (2) 4
Total Industrial buildings 2,233 258 - (14) 2 (82) (40) 2,357
                 
Owned plant, machinery and equipment 21,352 2,960 84 (811) 131 (689) 50 23,077
Plant, machinery and equipment leased under finance leases 128 32 - (1) 17 - 8 184
Total Plant, machinery and equipment 21,480 2,992 84 (812) 148 (689) 58 23,261
                 
Other tangible assets 982 178 - (37) 4 (44) (10) 1,073
                 
Advances and tangible assets in progress 10 - - - - - 1 11
Accumulated depreciation and impairment 24,712 3,428 84 (863) 154 (815) 9 26,709

(€ million)

At 31 December 2011DepreciationImpairment lossesDivestituresChange in the scope of consolidationTranslation differencesOther changesAt 31 December 2012
Land 7 - - - - - - 7
                 
Owned industrial buildings 1,999 253 2 (13) 2 (22) 7 2,228
Industrial buildings leased under finance leases 14 1 - - - - (10) 5
Total Industrial buildings 2,013 254 2 (13) 2 (22) (3) 2,233
                 
Owned plant, machinery and equipment 19,505 2,794 47 (795) (12) (202) 15 21,352
Plant, machinery and equipment leased under finance leases 105 27 - - (6) 1 1 128
Total Plant, machinery and equipment 19,610 2,821 47 (795) (18) (201) 16 21,480
                 
Other tangible assets 948 178 - (56) 2 (16) (74) 982
                 
Advances and tangible assets in progress 10 - 1 - - - (1) 10
Accumulated depreciation and impairment 22,588 3,253 50 (864) (14) (239) (62) 24,712

Changes in the net carrying amount of Property, plant and equipment were as follows:

(€ million)At 31 December 2012AdditionsDepreciationImpairment lossesDivestituresChange in the scope of consolida-tionTranslation differencesOther changesAt 31 December 2013
Land 709 4 - - (5) 3 (55) 216 872
                   
Owned industrial buildings 4,169 510 (257) - (15) 17 (200) 292 4,516
Industrial buildings leased under finance leases 14 - (1) - - - - 73 86
Total Industrial buildings 4,183 510 (258) - (15) 17 (200) 365 4,602
                   
Owned plant, machinery and equipment 12,726 2,470 (2,960) (84) (36) 82 (649) 2,307 13,856
Plant, machinery and equipment leased under finance leases 254 54 (32) - (3) 10 1 7 291
Total Plant, machinery and equipment 12,980 2,524 (2,992) (84) (39) 92 (648) 2,314 14,147
                   
Other tangible assets 926 137 (178) - (14) 1 (49) 133 956
                   
Advances and tangible assets in progress 3,263 1,935 - (2) (4) 4 (177) (2,753) 2,266
Net carrying amount 22,061 5,110 (3,428) (86) (77) 117 (1,129) 275 22,843

(€ million)At 31 December 2011AdditionsDepreciationImpairment lossesDivestituresChange in the scope of consolidationTranslation differencesOther changesAt 31 December 2012
Land 719 4 - - (7) - (8) 1 709
                   
Owned industrial buildings 3,939 170 (253) (2) (20) - (48) 383 4,169
Industrial buildings leased under finance leases 43 - (1) - - - - (28) 14
Total Industrial buildings 3,982 170 (254) (2) (20) - (48) 335 4,183
                   
Owned plant, machinery and equipment 12,169 1,244 (2,794) (47) (27) - (202) 2,383 12,726
Plant, machinery and equipment leased under finance leases 254 29 (27) - (3) - 2 (1) 254
Total Plant, machinery and equipment 12,423 1,273 (2,821) (47) (30) - (200) 2,382 12,980
                   
Other tangible assets 992 118 (178) - (19) - (4) 17 926
                   
Advances and tangible assets in progress 2,669 3,584 - (1) (9) - (104) (2,876) 3,263
Net carrying amount 20,785 5,149 (3,253) (50) (85) - (364) (121) 22,061

As a result of an analysis of the classification of the Group’s assets arising from the data conversion connected to the implementation of a new accounting information system for certain subsidiaries, the 2011 and 2012 amounts presented in this analysis for comparative purposes have been reclassified to ensure comparability and consistency. A group of equipment previously classified within the item Other tangible assets is now classified as Plant, machinery and equipment. This reclassification had no effect on the results, net assets and total of Property, plant and equipment reported in the Statement of financial position.

Additions of €5,110 million in 2013 are primarily related to the car mass-market operations in NAFTA and EMEA region, as well as, to the ongoing construction of the new LATAM plant in Pernambuco.

In 2013, €30 million of impairment losses are related to assets in the Cast Iron business unit of the Components segment as a result of an expected reduction in these activities compared to the previous expectations, due to the increasing use of aluminum in the production of the automotive engine blocks rather than cast iron. These impairments, which are due to a structural change in the market, were fully recognized within Unusual expenses. The remaining impairment losses were related to the above mentioned streamlining of architectures and models associated with the EMEA region’s refocused product strategy.

Changes in the scope of consolidation mainly reflects the consolidation of the VM Motori group from the 1st July 2013, as discussed in the section Scope of consolidation.

In 2013, Exchange losses of €1,129 million mainly reflect the changes of the US Dollar and the Brazilian Real against the Euro. In 2012, exchange losses of €364 million mainly reflected the depreciation of the US Dollar and the Brazilian Real against the Euro, partially offset by the appreciation of the Polish Zloty against the Euro.

In 2013 Other changes primarily consisted of the reclassification of prior year balances for Advances and tangible assets in progress to the respective categories when the assets were acquired and entered service. With reference to Land, Other changes also includes €214 million which is the fair value of the land donated to Fiat by the State of Pernambuco (Brazil) at the end of the year following the Group commitment to implement an industrial unit designed to produce, assemble and sell vehicles.

At 31 December 2013, Property, plant and equipment of the Fiat Group excluding Chrysler reported as pledged as collateral for loans, is mainly related to assets that are legally owned by suppliers but are recognized in the consolidated financial statements in accordance with IFRIC 4 with the corresponding recognition of a financial lease payable. They were as follows:

(€ million)At 31 December 2013At 31 December 2012
Land and industrial buildings of pledged as a security for debt 102 31
Plant and machinery pledged as security for debt and other commitments 294 259
Other assets pledged as security for debt and other commitments 5 6
Property plant and equipment pledged as security for debt 401 296

The amount of Property, plant and equipment of Chrysler at 31 December 2013 is €11,975  million (€12,069 million at 31 December 2012). Substantially all the Property, plant and equipment of Chrysler and its U.S. subsidiary guarantors are unconditionally pledged as securities for certain debts of Chrysler (see Note 27).

At 31 December 2013, the Group had contractual commitments for the purchase of Property, plant and equipment amounting to €1,536 million (€919 million at 31 December 2012).