The Group is exposed to the following financial risks connected with its operations:
- credit risk, arising both from its normal commercial relations with final customers and dealers, and its financing activities;
- liquidity risk, with particular reference to the availability of funds and access to the credit market and to financial instruments in general;
- financial market risk (principally relating to exchange rates, interest rates and commodity prices), since the Group operates at an international level in different currencies and uses financial instruments which generate interests. The Group is also exposed to the risk of changes in the price of certain commodities and of certain listed shares.
These risks could significantly affect the Group’s financial position and results, and for this reason the Group systematically identifies, and monitors these risks, in order to detect potential negative effects in advance and take the necessary action to mitigate them, primarily through its operating and financing activities and if required, through the use of derivative financial instruments.
Financial instruments held by the funds that manage pension plan assets are not included in this analysis (see the Note 25).
The following section provides qualitative and quantitative disclosures on the effect that these risks may have upon the Group. The quantitative data reported in the following does not have any predictive value, in particular the sensitivity analysis on finance market risks does not reflect the complexity of the market or the reaction which may result from any changes that are assumed to take place.
Credit risk is the risk of economic loss arising from the failure to collect a receivable. Credit risk encompasses the direct risk of default and the risk of a deterioration of the creditworthiness of the counterparty.
The Group’s credit risk differs in relation to the activities carried out. In particular, dealer financing and operating and financial lease activities that are carried out through the Group’s financial services companies are exposed both to the direct risk of default and the deterioration of the creditworthiness of the counterparty, while the sale of vehicles and spare parts is mostly exposed to the direct risk of default of the counterparty. These risks are however mitigated by the fact that collection exposure is spread across a large number of counterparties and customers.
Taken overall, however, the credit risk regarding the Group’s trade receivables and receivables from financing activities is concentrated in the European Union and Latin America markets for Fiat excluding Chrysler and in the North American market for Chrysler.
In order to test for impairment, significant receivables from corporate customers and receivables for which collectability is at risk are assessed individually, while receivables from end customers or small business customers are grouped into homogeneous risk categories. A receivable is considered impaired when there is objective evidence that the Group will be unable to collect all amounts due specified in the contractual terms. Objective evidence may be provided by the following factors: significant financial difficulties of the counterparty, the probability that the counterparty will be involved in an insolvency procedure or will default on its installment payments, the restructuring or renegotiation of open items with the counterparty, changes in the payment status of one or more debtors included in a specific risk category and other contractual breaches. The calculation of the amount of the impairment loss is based on the risk of default by the counterparty, which is determined by taking into account all the information available as to the customer’s solvency, the fair value of any guarantees received for the receivable and the Group’s historical experience.
The maximum credit risk to which the Group is theoretically exposed at 31 December 2013 is represented by the carrying amounts of financial assets in the financial statements and the nominal value of the guarantees provided on liabilities and commitments to third parties as discussed in Note 31.
Dealers and final customers for which the Group provides financing are subject to specific assessments of their creditworthiness under a detailed scoring system; in addition to carrying out this screening process, the Group also obtains financial and non-financial guarantees for risks arising from credit granted. These guarantees are further strengthened where possible by reserve of title clauses on financed vehicle sales to the sales network made by Group financial service companies and on vehicles assigned under finance and operating lease agreements.
Receivables for financing activities amounting to €3,671 million at 31 December 2013 contain balances totaling €21 million (€7 million at 31 December 2012), which have been written down on an individual basis. Of the remainder, balances totaling €72 million are past due by up to one month (€107 million at 31 December 2012), while balances totaling €23 million are past due by more than one month (€62 million at 31 December 2012). In the event of installment payments, even if only one installment is overdue, the whole amount of the receivable is classified as such.
Trade receivables and Other receivables amounting to €4,266 million at 31 December 2013 contain balances totaling €19 million (€39 million at 31 December 2012) which have been written down on an individual basis. Of the remainder, balances totaling €243 million are past due by up to one month (€216 million at 31 December 2012), while balances totaling €358 million are past due by more than one month (€307 million at 31 December 2012).
Provided that Current securities and Cash and cash equivalents consist of balances spread across various primary national and international banking institutions and money market instruments that are measured at fair value, there was no exposure to sovereign debt securities at 31 December 2013 which might lead to significant repayment risk.
Liquidity risk arises if the Group is unable to obtain the funds needed to carry out its operations under economic conditions. Any actual or perceived limitations on the Group’s liquidity may affect the ability of counterparties to do business with the Group or may require additional amounts of cash and cash equivalents to be allocated as collateral for outstanding obligations.
The continuation of a difficult economic situation in the markets in which the Group operates and the uncertainties that characterize the financial markets, necessitate giving special attention to the management of liquidity risk. In that sense measures taken to generate funds through operations and to maintain a conservative level of available liquidity are an important factor for ensuring operational flexibility and addressing strategic challenges over the next few years.
The two main factors that determine the Group’s liquidity situation are on the one hand the funds generated by or used in operating and investing activities and on the other the debt lending period and its renewal features or the liquidity of the funds employed and market terms and conditions.
The Group has adopted a series of policies and procedures whose purpose is to optimize the management of funds and to reduce liquidity risk as follows:
- centralizing the management of receipts and payments, where it may be economical in the context of the local civil, currency and fiscal regulations of the countries in which the Group is present;
- maintaining a conservative level of available liquidity;
- diversifying the means by which funds are obtained and maintaining a continuous and active presence in the capital markets;
- obtaining adequate credit lines;
- monitoring future liquidity on the basis of business planning.
From an operating point of view the Group manages liquidity risk by monitoring cash flows and keeping an adequate level of funds at its disposal. The operating cash flows, main funding operations and liquidity of the Fiat Group excluding Chrysler are centrally managed in the Group’s treasury companies with the aim of ensuring effective and efficient management of the Group’s funds. These companies obtain funds on the financial markets by means which may assume different technical forms.
Chrysler manages the cash generated by its operations and coverage of its funding requirements independently. In this respect Fiat has pledged no guarantee, commitment or similar obligation in relation to any of Chrysler’s financing obligations, nor has it assumed any kind of obligation or commitment to fund Chrysler in the future.
Details of the repayment structure of the Group’s financial assets and liabilities are provided in Note 18 - Current Receivables and Other current assets and in Note 27 - Debt. Details of the repayment structure of derivative financial instruments are provided in Note 20.
The Group believes that the funds currently available to the treasuries of Fiat and Chrysler, in addition to those that will be generated from operating and financing activities, will enable the Fiat Group to satisfy the requirements of its investing activities and working capital needs, fulfill its obligations to repay its debt at the natural due dates and ensure an appropriate level of operating and strategic flexibility.
Financial market risks
The Group is exposed to the risks from fluctuations in foreign currency exchange and interest rates and the commodity prices associated with business operations.
The Group’s exposure to currency risk arises both in connection with the geographical distribution of the Group’s industrial activities compared to the markets in which it sells its products, and in relation to the use of external borrowing denominated in foreign currencies.
The Group’s exposure to interest rate risk arises from the need to fund industrial and financial operating activities and the necessity to deploy surplus funds. Changes in market interest rates may have the effect of either increasing or decreasing the Group’s net profit/(loss), thereby indirectly affecting the costs and returns of financing and investing transactions.
The Group’s exposure to commodity price risk arises from the risk of changes occurring in the price of certain raw materials used in production. Changes in the price of raw materials could have a significant effect on the Group’s results by indirectly affecting costs and product margins.
The Group regularly assesses its exposure to finance market risk and manages those risks through the use of derivative financial instruments in accordance with its established risk management policies.
The Group’s policy permits derivatives to be used only for managing the exposure to fluctuations in exchange and interest rates as well as commodities prices connected with future cash flows and assets and liabilities, and not for speculative purposes.
The Group utilizes derivative financial instruments designated as fair value hedges, mainly to hedge:
- the currency risk on financial instruments denominated in foreign currency;
- the interest rate risk on fixed rate loans and borrowings.
The instruments used for these hedges are mainly currency forward contracts, interest rate swaps and combined interest rate and currency financial instruments.
The Group uses derivative financial instruments as cash flow hedges for the purpose of pre-determining:
- the exchange rate at which forecasted transactions denominated in foreign currencies will be accounted for;
- the interest paid on borrowings, both to match the fixed interest received on loans (customer financing activity), and to achieve a targeted mix of floating versus fixed rate funding structured loans;
- the price of certain commodities.
The exchange rate exposure on forecasted commercial flows is hedged by currency swaps, forward contracts and currency options. Interest rate exposures are usually hedged by interest rate swaps and, in limited cases, by forward rate agreements. Exposure to changes in the price of commodities is generally hedged by using commodity swaps.
Counterparties to these agreements are major and diverse financial institutions.
Information on the fair value of derivative financial instruments held at the balance sheet date is provided in Note 20.
Quantitative information on currency risk
The Group is exposed to risk resulting from changes in exchange rates, which can affect its earnings and equity. In particular:
- Where a Group company incurs costs in a currency different from that of its revenues, any change in exchange rates can affect the Operating result of that company. In 2013, the total trade flows exposed to currency risk amounted to the equivalent of 13% of the Group’s turnover.
- The principal exchange rates to which the Group is exposed are the following:
- USD/CAD, relating to sales in Canadian Dollars made by Chrysler in Canada;
- EUR/USD, relating to sales in US Dollars made by Italian companies (in particular, companies belonging to the Luxury Brands operating segment) and to sales and purchases in Euro made by Chrysler;
- GBP, AUD, MXN, CHF, CNY, ARS and VEF in relation to sales in the UK, Australian, Mexican, Swiss, Chinese, Argentinian and Venezuelan markets;
- PLN and TRY, relating to manufacturing costs incurred in Poland and Turkey;
- USD/BRL, EUR/BRL, relating to Brazilian manufacturing operations and the related import and export flows.
Taken overall trade flows exposed to changes in these exchange rates in 2013 made up approximately 90% of the exposure to currency risk from trade transactions.
- It is the Group’s policy to use derivative financial instruments to hedge a certain percentage, on average between 55% and 85%, of the forecast trading transaction exchange risk exposure for the coming 12 months (including such risk beyond that date where it is believed to be appropriate in relation to the characteristics of the business) and to hedge completely the exposure resulting from firm commitments.
- Group companies may find themselves with trade receivables or payables denominated in a currency different from the functional currency of the company itself. In addition, in a limited number of cases, it may be convenient from an economic point of view, or it may be required under local market conditions, for companies to obtain finance or use funds in a currency different from the functional currency. Changes in exchange rates may result in exchange gains or losses arising from these situations. It is the Group’s policy to hedge fully, whenever possible, the exposure resulting from receivables, payables and securities denominated in foreign currencies different from the company’s functional currency.
- Certain of the Group’s subsidiaries are located in countries which are outside of the Eurozone, in particular the United States, Brazil, Canada, Poland, Serbia, Turkey, Mexico, Argentina, the Czech Republic, India, China and South Africa. As the Group’s reference currency is the Euro, the Income statements of those entities are converted into Euros using the average exchange rate for the period, and while revenues and margins are unchanged in local currency, changes in exchange rates may lead to effects on the converted balances of revenues, costs and the result in Euro.
- The assets and liabilities of consolidated companies whose money of account is different from the Euro may acquire converted values in Euros which differ as a function of the fluctuation in exchange rates. The effects of these changes are recognized directly in the item Cumulative Translation Adjustments reserve, included in Other comprehensive income/(losses) (see Note 23).
The Group monitors its principal exposure to conversion exchange risk, although there was no specific hedging in this respect at the balance sheet date.
There have been no substantial changes in 2013 in the nature or structure of exposure to currency risk or in the Group’s hedging policies.
The potential loss in fair value of derivative financial instruments held for currency risk management (currency swaps/forwards, currency options, interest rate and currency swaps) at 31 December 2013 resulting from a hypothetical, unfavorable and instantaneous change of 10% in the exchange rates of the leading foreign currencies with the Euro would have been approximately €745 million (€690 million at 31 December 2012).
Receivables, payables and future trade flows whose hedging transactions have been analyzed were not considered in this analysis. It is reasonable to assume that changes in exchange rates will produce the opposite effect, of an equal or greater amount, on the underlying transactions that have been hedged.
Quantitative information on interest rate risk
The manufacturing companies and treasuries of the Group make use of external funds obtained in the form of financing and invest in monetary and financial market instruments. In addition, Group companies make sales of receivables resulting from their trading activities on a continuing basis. Changes in market interest rates can affect the cost of the various forms of financing, including the sale of receivables, or the return on investments, and the employment of funds, causing an impact on the level of net financial expenses incurred by the Group.
In addition, the financial services companies provide loans (mainly to customers and dealers), financing themselves using various forms of direct debt or asset-backed financing (e.g. factoring of receivables). Where the characteristics of the variability of the interest rate applied to loans granted differ from those of the variability of the cost of the financing obtained, changes in the current level of interest rates can affect the Operating result of those companies and the Group as a whole.
In order to manage these risks, the Group uses interest rate derivative financial instruments, mainly interest rate swaps and forward rate agreements, when available in the market, with the object of mitigating, under economically acceptable conditions, the potential variability of interest rates on net profit/(loss).
In assessing the potential impact of changes in interest rates, the Group separates out fixed rate financial instruments (for which the impact is assessed in terms of fair value) from floating rate financial instruments (for which the impact is assessed in terms of cash flows).
The fixed rate financial instruments used by the Group consist principally of part of the portfolio of the financial services companies (basically customer financing and financial leases) and part of debt (including subsidized loans and bonds).
The potential loss in fair value of fixed rate financial instruments (including the effect of interest rate derivative financial instruments) held at 31 December 2013, resulting from a hypothetical, unfavorable and instantaneous change of 10% in market interest rates, would have been approximately €110 million (approximately €100 million at 31 December 2012).
Floating rate financial instruments consist principally of cash and cash equivalents, loans provided by the financial services companies to the sales network and part of debt. The effect of the sale of receivables is also considered in the sensitivity analysis as well as the effect of hedging derivative instruments.
A hypothetical, unfavorable and instantaneous change of 10% in short-term interest rates at 31 December 2013, applied to floating rate financial assets and liabilities, operations for the sale of receivables and derivative financial instruments, would have caused increased net expenses before taxes, on an annual basis, of approximately €13 million (€10 million at 31 December 2012).
This analysis is based on the assumption that there is a general and instantaneous change of 10% in interest rates across homogeneous categories. A homogeneous category is defined on the basis of the currency in which the financial assets and liabilities are denominated.
Quantitative information on commodity price risk
The Group has entered into derivative contracts for certain commodities to hedge its exposure to commodity price risk associated with buying raw materials used in its normal operations.
In connection with the commodity price derivative contracts outstanding at 31 December 2013, a hypothetical, unfavorable and instantaneous change of 10% in the price of the commodities at that date would have caused a fair value loss of €45 million (€51 million at 31 December 2012).